Hacking Alzheimer's

Dear fellow biohackers,





Recently a family member lost her job because she had gotten an early form of dementia, Alzheimer's. She had been given treatment but the medicine (Rivastigmine) had such nasty side effects that she had stopped taking it. As a biohacker, I told her of some recent research suggesting that diet was a major factor in Alzheimer's. I promised her to send her some supplements and then see if her memory loss would lessen. I decided to design a study that would test the influence of various supplements on memory performance, trying as many supplements as possible as soon as possible (Rivastigmine is not something you give to people who forget their grocery list once).



I've looked at more than 50 papers, and while I don't know much about biological processes, I did manage to draw some conclusions. I designed the following study:



Excerpt from study write-up




I suggest the following approach:

1. In the first week, she will receive no supplements but will do all the tests at least once, preferably more often.

2. In the month following that, all supplements thought to be beneficial will be administered, and all tests will be made on at least a weekly basis.

After this month, results will be evaluated.

3. If the cognitive performance became significantly worse, the test will be stopped.

3. If the cognitive performance increases, a two-week period will follow with no supplementation but with weekly tests. This will enable us to see if the improvement on test scores was because of repetition of the tests, or because of supplementation.

4. If the test scores during this two-week period decrease significantly, supplementation will start again and decisions will be made on which supplements to leave out, to try and identify the beneficial supplements.

4. If scores do not decrease significantly in the two-week period of no supplementation, another two-week period of no supplementation will follow and then conclusions on the influence of test repetition on test performance will be drawn. Decisions of continuing the trial or not will be made.



The above will be the approach used during the n=1 trial.



Supplement doses

1. Vitamin D

I see no reason to divert from the standard ~5000IU (those are the capsules I have) dose. Thus, the dose will be 5000IU/day.

2. Magnesium

I see no reason to divert from Dave's recommendations of about 600-800mg/day. Daily intake will be about 670mg, taking 4 caps of 167mg.

3. Vitamin C

Dr. Newport notes that Steve gets 2000mg of vitamin C per day. Dave recommends 1-2g. It seems logical to stick with 2g/day.

4. Iodine

I see no reason to divert from Dave's recommended amount of 1mg/day.

5. Krill Oil

Once again, I see no reason to divert from Dave's recommended amount of 1g/day.

6. Vitamin A

And again. 10,000IU/day it is.

7. Selenium

Again. 200mcg/day.

8. Folinic Acid with B12

Again I'm inclined to follow Dave's recommendations: 5mg of methylcobalamin and 800mcg of folate per day.

9. Creatine

I'm not sure of the dose here. 5g/day is a good starting point, I think.

10. MCT oil

Dr. Newport thinks that higher levels of coconut and MCT oil are beneficial. It seems logical to start with 30ml of MCT oil (which makes my 1L supply of MCT oil last one month).



Testing memory performance

To get a general idea of cognitive performance, I want to administer many different tests. Some longer tests can be taken monthly or biweekly, some smaller tests weekly or twice per week.



A memory test that can be taken often is the digit span test (http://burotester.nl.../digitspan.html, Dutch). It will be taken twice per week.

Another memory test is a word test (http://www.mtcompany...eugen_test.aspx, Dutch). It seems to randomize the words so that minimum learning takes place. It will be taken twice per week.



Another memory test is the BBC face recognition test (http://www.bbc.co.uk...body/sleep/tmt/). Some learning might take place, I don't know if the faces are randomized. It will be taken biweekly.



A good IQ test is Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (http://www.iqtest.dk). Some learninig might take place, therefore it will be taken monthly.



Corsi-block tapping seems like a good test as well (http://memory.uva.nl...si_geheugentest, Dutch), this test wil be taken monthly (as you have to make a new account for each time you take it). The visual memory test (http://memory.uva.nl...le_geheugentest, Dutch) takes two hours and will be taken monthly as well.



The MMSE and ADAS-cog will be taken by my uncle, biweekly.



The Verbal memory, CPT-AX, Symbol Digit, Digit Span and Verbal Memory delay tests from cogtest.com will be done weekly (registration is free).

/Excerpt from study write-up




I've made a schedule for all supplements and tests. The tests start tomorrow, the supplements a week later.



I'd love to hear what you think, if you draw different conclusions, if you recommend other stuff, or if you have experience with Alzheimer's yourself, or anything else (I've been in contact with one biohacker who uses nootropics for Alzheimer's, only that probably doesn't reverse anything but temporarily increases cognitive performance).

Comments

  • Here's the research I did by the way, encapsulated in a spoiler tag for your reading pleasure:




    Recently a family member lost her job because she had gotten an early form of dementia, Alzheimer's. She had been given treatment but the medicine (Rivastigmine) had such nasty side effects that she had stopped taking it. As a biohacker, I told her of some recent research suggesting that diet was a major factor in Alzheimer's. I promised her to send her some supplements and then see if her memory loss would lessen. I decided to design a study that would test the influence of various supplements on memory performance, trying as many supplements as possible as soon as possible (Rivastigmine is not something you give to people who forget their grocery list once).



    Goal

    The goal of this research is to lessen her memory loss. This should be achieved through supplements or dietary changes. It must be backed by research. Measuring changes in memory will be achieved through simple memory tests. Reducing memory loss might indicate that the disease itself is slowed, which might increase her life expectancy.



    Subject's history

    The subject eats a normal Western diet. She has been diagnosed before with borderline personality disorder (BPO). She tended to withdraw from social activities and be really bad-tempered. Other behaviour that has been observed was: sitting alone in a corner of the room during a birthday party, being really bad-tempered, drinking excessively when home alone and then randomly walking the streets. Her behavior never has been perfectly socially adapted. This behavior started about 8-10 years ago, when my uncle just knew her.



    This strange behavior might have been misdiagnosed as BPO and might have been caused by the beginning stages of a form of neurogenerative disease, though it has been going on for a long time and neurogenerative diseases generally progress faster.



    Different forms of Alzheimer's

    Next to Alzheimer's (simply early dementia), there is vascular dementia, Lewy-Body dementia and Fronto-temporal dementia (Pick's disease) [1]. Vascular dementia occurs with strokes. Lewy-Body dementia is a lesser-known form of dementia, people with this type commonly experience visual hallucinations, paranoia and delusions. Fronto-temporal dementia is another relatively uncommon form of dementia, and is a significant cause in younger people - specifically those under the age of 65 - it is the second or third most common cause of dementia in this age group [2].



    The question now is: does my family member have Alzheimer's or Fronto-temporal dementia?



    When assuming my BPO (Borderline Personality disorder) misdiagnosis hypothesis is true, the symptoms suggest a Fronto-temporal cause: "The early personality changes can help doctors tell Pick's disease apart from Alzheimer’s. (Memory loss is often the main, and earliest, symptom of Alzheimer's.) [...] People with Pick's disease tend to behave the wrong way in different social settings. The changes in behavior continue to get worse and are often one of the most disturbing symptoms of the disease. " [3]. Alzheimer's can also fit: "Someone with Alzheimer's may: [...] lose interest in other people or activities [...] become unwilling to try out new things or adapt to change" [1], although Alzheimer's generally starts with memory loss instead of personality changes. Symptoms of BPO include "see things in terms of extremes, such as either all good or all bad. [...] These suddenly shifting feelings often lead to intense and unstable relationships [...] Other symptoms of BPO include: Fear of being abandoned, Feelings of emptiness and boredom, Frequent displays of inappropriate anger, Impulsiveness with money, substance abuse, sexual relationships, binge eating, or shoplifting, Intolerance of being alone, Repeated crises and acts of self-injury, such as wrist cutting or overdosing" [4]. She seems to fit Pick's disease symptoms better than BPO symptoms [3]. The hypothesis that Pick's was misdiagnosed as BPO seems viable, but the time scale of this behaviour suggests it is not. Also, Pick's disease is relatively rare [3], and the doctors told her she had beginning dementia (Alzheimer's). Still, there is a small chance that it is Pick's disease.



    It is not clear to me what the exact similarities and differences between Alzheimer's and Pick's are. There is some information but not much. I would like to find research on Pick's disease but there is almost none, certainly none considering supplements. Therefore I will only consider Alzheimer's disease from now on.



    Life expectancy

    The expectancy for Alzheimer's is: "Patients with b]Alzheimer's disease, AD[/b often die earlier than normal, although a patient may live anywhere from 3 - 20 years after diagnosis. The final phase of the disease may last from a few months to several years. During that time, the patient becomes totally disabled. Death usually occurs from an infection or organ failure". This is relatively benign compared to the prognosis for Pick's disease: "The disorder quickly and steadily becomes worse. Patients become totally disabled early in the course of the disease. Pick's disease commonly causes death within 2 - 10 years, usually from infection but sometimes from general failure of the body systems".

    Thus, time is scarce and fast acting is required.



    Research on the prevention of Alzheimer's

    As there is no research on the prevention of Pick's disease, only research on the prevention of Alzheimer's will be considered.



    One small-scale, short-term study notes: "They found those who had more vitamin B, C, D and E in their blood performed better in tests of memory and thinking skills. People with high levels of omega 3 fatty acids - found mainly in fish - also had high scores. The poorest scores were found in people who had more trans fats in their blood. [...] They found individuals with high levels of vitamins and omega 3 in their blood were more likely to have a large brain volume; while those with high levels of trans fat had a smaller total brain volume". This research does not look at long-term Alzheimer's risk.



    Other research notes: "Two thousand one hundred forty-eight community-based elderly subjects (aged ≥65 years) without dementia [...] provided dietary information and were [...] evaluated [...] approximately every 1.5 years. [...] Two hundred fifty-three subjects developed AD during a follow-up of 3.9 years. [...] In this prospective study, we identified a [dietary pattern] that explained variation of [Alzheimer's disease]-related nutrients and was strongly protective against the development of [Alzheimer's]. [...] This [dietary pattern] reflected a diet rich in ω-3 PUFA, ω-6 PUFA, vitamin E, and folate, but with lower SFA and vitamin B12. Furthermore, dietary habits of subjects adhering more to this [dietary pattern] were characterized as high intake of salad dressing, nuts, fish, tomatoes, poultry, cruciferous vegetables, fruits, and dark and green leafy vegetables and low intake of high-fat dairy, red meat, organ meat, and butter." [6]

    This study lists some Paleo/Bulletproof foods as being beneficial, but says butter and meat is bad. I don't fully understand how the study was conducted, but it seems that they took one dietary pattern that was strongly correlated with Alzheimer's risk and examined that. The characteristics of this dietary pattern are described above. It is possible that the people eating this way (less meat and more vegetables) ate healthier than other people despite their low intake of (probably grain-fed) meat, and thereby lowered their Alzheimer's risk, saying little about the effect of butter and meat and even less about grass-fed meat and grass-fed butter. But again, I do not fully understand how the study was conducted.



    Alzheimer's and insulin

    Another article focuses on the relation between insulin and Alzheimer's, bashing junk-food in the process: "A large body of evidence now suggests that Alzheimer’s is primarily a metabolic disease. Some scientists have gone so far as to rename it. They call it diabetes type 3. [...] The association between Alzheimer’s and diabetes 2 is long-established: type 2 sufferers are two to three times more likely to be struck by this dementia than the general population. There are also associations between Alzheimer’s and obesity and Alzheimer’s and metabolic syndrome (a complex of diet-related pathologies). [...] Insulin in the brain has a host of functions: as well as glucose metabolism, it helps to regulate the transmission of signals from one nerve cell to another, and affects their growth, plasticity and survival. Experiments conducted since then seem to support the link between diet and dementia, and researchers have begun to propose potential mechanisms. In common with all brain chemistry, these tend to be fantastically complex, involving, among other impacts, inflammation, stress caused by oxidation, the accumulation of one kind of brain protein and the transformation of another." [7]

    This research strongly suggests that dietary habits that cause diabetes also influence Alzheimer's risk. Thus, to prevent Alzheimer's it seems wise to adhere to diets proven to be effective in diabetes type II treatment, like Paleo or the Bulletproof diet [8].



    There is some information about insulin sensitivity during Alzheimer's progression as well: "There is clinical and experimental evidence that treatment with insulin or insulin sensitizer agents can enhance cognitive function and in some circumstances help slow the rate of cognitive decline in AD" [9], suggesting that insulin treatments slow the rate of deterioration.

    "Brain insulin resistance (diabetes) is very much like regular diabetes [...] Since the underlying problems continue to be just about the same, we believe that the development of new therapies would be applicable for all types of diabetes, including Alzheimer’s disease, which we refer to as Type III diabetes." [9] , suggesting that the treatment methods of regular diabetes are also useful for Alzheimer's disease.

    "This study points out that once AD is established, therapeutic efforts should target several different pathways — not just one. The reason is that a positive feedback loop gets going, making AD progress. We have to break the vicious cycle. Restoring insulin responsiveness and insulin depletion will help, but we need to reduce brain stress and repair the metabolic problems that cause the brain to produce toxins.” [9] This suggests targeting several different pathways, not just one, to break the positive feedback loop. Reducing brain stress and repairing the metabolic problems seem paramount.



    Research on treatment of Alzheimer's with supplements

    Knowing some mechanisms that Alzheimer's has to do with is great, but I need to know which supplements to make her try. It's hard to search for all research describing the effect of certain supplements on Alzheimer's, so I decided to do it the other way round: searching for research on the influence of specific supplements on Alzheimer's. As it's hard to know where to start, I simply took the supplement list of Dave Asprey's supplement post [10], adding creatine and MCT oil and excluding one supplement that (probably) has nothing to do with brain function: vitamin K2.


    1. Vitamin D

    2. Magnesium

    3. Vitamin C

    4. Iodine

    5. Krill Oil

    6. Vitamin A

    7. Selenium

    8. Copper

    9. Folinic Acid with B12

    10. Creatine

    11. MCT oil




    Dave makes some amazing claims in the blog post, which will be taken into consideration. First, I want to look for research regarding each supplement and Alzheimer's.



    1. Vitamin D

    One study finds a significant relation: "Vitamin-D-sufficient [Alzheimer's] patients had significantly higher MMSE scores as compared to vitamin-D-insufficient ones. No association was found with the other serum vitamin levels." [12] No causality is concluded, however. Another study notes "In a cross-section of older adults, vitamin D deficiency was associated with low mood and with impairment on two of four measures of cognitive performance." [13]

    Based on the two studies above, it seems a very good idea to supplement with vitamin D.



    2. Magnesium

    One study notes: "Mg values are found to be significantly decreased in brain regions of [Alzheimer's] patients compared to the controls." [14] Another says: "A possible causal relationship between low magnesium in hippocampal neurons and impairment of learning, as noted in aged rat experiments, suggests that magnesium protects against neural degeneration." [15] Yet another notes: "Mg in the treatment of dementia facilitates learning and contributes to improvement in other symptoms" [16]

    A very old study hypothesizes that the transport mechanism for magnesium is defective, and concludes: "Verification of this hypothesis would provide strong support for a prophylactic or palliative approach towards AD, involving dietary supplementation of Mg and rigorous control of Al intake. " [17] It is not clear if this hypothesis is true.

    The research suggests that magnesium protects against neural degeneration, facilitates learning and improves other symptoms of Alzheimer's. It seems a very good idea to supplement with magnesium.



    3. Vitamin C (and E)

    One study suggests that "use of the higher dose vitamin E and vitamin C supplements may lower the risk of AD." [11] This only lowers the risk to contract Alzheimer's, however.

    Another study concludes: "After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, education, total energy intake, and use of psychotropic medications, consumption of vitamin C supplements was associated with a lower prevalence of more severe cognitive impairment [...] There were no associations between vitamin C intake and scores on tests of verbal and category fluency. This study suggests that vitamin C might protect against cognitive impairment." [18]

    Another on anti-oxidants says: "Peripheral levels and activities of antioxidants were similarly lower in [mild cognitive impairment, MCI] and [Alzheimer's] patients as compared to controls. As [mild cognitive impairment, MCI] may represent a [early symptoms] stage of [Alzheimer's], and oxidative damage appears to occur as one of the earliest pathophysiological events in [Alzheimer's], an increased intake of antioxidants in patients with MCI could be helpful in lowering the risk of conversion to dementia." [19] This suggests that intake of anti-oxidants, including vitamin C, might be beneficial in stopping the progression of the disease.

    Another study supports that oxygen-free radicals cause damage: "Plasma vitamin C is lower in [Alzheimer's] in proportion to the degree of cognitive impairment and is not explained by lower vitamin C intake. These results support the hypothesis that oxygen-free radicals may cause damage." [20]

    There are also studies that show no effect: "In this community in the southeastern US where vitamin supplement use is low, use of vitamins C and/or E did not delay the incidence of dementia or AD." [21] This study is bad though, it did not control how much of and in what form the vitamins were given and relied on interviews. Also, the number of participants taking supplements was very low.



    One study notes different effects: "Oral supplementation of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (D-alfa-tocopherol acetate) alone and in combination have been shown to decrease oxidative DNA damage in animal studies in vivo, in vitro, and in situ. Recent results of a prospective observational study (n = 4740) suggest that the combined use of vitamin E 400 IU daily and vitamin C 500 mg daily for at least 3 years was associated with the reduction of AD prevalence (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.60) and incidence (HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.99). Contradicting this is a previous prospective observational study (n = 980) evaluating the relationship between 4 years of vitamin C and E intake and the incidence of AD, which detected no difference in the incidence of AD during the 4-year follow-up. Recent meta-analysis results suggest that doses of vitamin E ≥400 IU daily for more than one year are associated with increased all-cause mortality. Mega-trial results suggest that vitamin E doses≥ 400 IU daily for 6.9 years in patients with preexisting vascular disease or diabetes mellitus increase the incidence of heart failure, with no other outcome benefits noted." [22] This study suggests that high vitamin E doses are not safe. It lists one study that contradicts any effect, but I trust the other study with large n more, which shows reduced Alzheimer's prevalence. Of course this study only lists the incidence, not what happens after the disease is diagnosed.



    Another very good large study (it's so good because it is critical: "studies on supplement use are prone to bias, because people who use supplements may also have more health problems and more health-seeking behavior") lists:" High dietary intake of vitamin C and vitamin E may lower the risk of Alzheimer disease." [23] This study only lists the incidence though.



    Vitamin E is mentioned often, but based on the risks listed in study [22] it is less safe and vitamin C alone can also be used to quench free-radical damage. Thus, it seems beneficial to supplement with vitamin C but not (a lot) with vitamin E.



    4. Iodine

    One study hints at a relation between Alzheimer's and iodine deficiency: "Although the evidence is weaker, iodine deficiency may also be implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In contrast, too much iodine may be linked to elevated mortality from cancer of the skin and melanoma." [24] It studies Alzheimer's risk only, however.



    Another study on iodine disorders lists the importance of iodine: "Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide." [25]



    Although there are so few studies concerning iodine, as the toxic limit is high and iodine is involved in metabolism, it seems logical to supplement with iodine.



    5. EPA/DHA (Krill Oil)

    This is where we get to the cool stuff, loads of research is being done here.



    The consumption of these fats has been found to be beneficial in Alzheimer's risk: "Dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids and weekly consumption of fish may reduce the risk of incident Alzheimer disease." [29]



    One study concludes that ethyl-EPA (synthetic EPA) has no effect: "It was concluded that it is unlikely there were any clinically important treatment effects of ethyl-EPA on cognition during the 12-week treatment period. A longer treatment period may be necessary to demonstrate efficacy of ethyl-EPA in this disorder." [26]



    Another high-quality study (randomized, double-blind) suggests that this treatment only has an effect in the early stages of this disease: "Administration of ω-3 fatty acid in patients with mild to moderate AD did not delay the rate of cognitive decline according to the MMSE or the cognitive portion of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale. However, positive effects were observed in a small group of patients with very mild AD (MMSE >27 points)." [27]

    The idea that EPA supplementation is only useful in the beginning stages of Alzheimer's is supported by another study: "Administration of EPA (900 mg/day) improved MMSE significantly with maximal effects at 3 months and the effects lasted 6 months. However, the score of MMSE decreased after 6 months. The present study showed that nutritional intervention is useful for the prevention of AD, and also for the therapy of dementia, though it has some limitation." [28]

    Yet another study suggests the same, however it is quite small: "[...] the omega-3 fatty acids group showed significant improvement in ADAS-cog compared to the placebo group in participants with mild cognitive impairment (p=0.03), which was not observed in those with Alzheimer's disease." [30]



    Another study on healthy elderly people suggests that EPA/DHA supplementation has no effect on healthy elderly: "In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we observed no overall effect of 26 weeks of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on cognitive performance." [31], although it did not list the baseline values of EPA/DHA.



    One review finds long-term prevention of cognitive decline: "In each of these studies, the n−3 fatty acids retarded the decline in cognition over time. One mechanism for the positive effect could be the antithrombotic and antiinflammatory properties of EPA" [32]



    Another study examines the general importance of EPA: "These results suggest that DHA is critical for the development and maintenance of learning memory performance." [33]



    Based on the research, it seems wise to supplement with EPA/DHA in the form of fish or krill oil, krill oil being of highest quality.



    6. Vitamin A

    There is no research on Alzheimer's and vitamin A. Based on Dave Asprey's claims [10], particularly that it is involved in metabolic reactions, and the research suggesting Alzheimer's is a metabolic disease, it seems wise to supplement with vitamin A.



    7. Selenium

    Selenium deficiencies seem to be nasty, and supplementation possibly increases mood in selenium deficient people: "high dietary selenium or supplementation with selenium appears to improve mood." [35]



    Another group of researchers think that selenium is beneficial to Alzheimer's patients: "The results allowed us to suggest that AD has an important relation with Se deficiency." [36] This study does not suggest the effect of selenium supplementation after the disease has been diagnosed, however, and does not imply causality.



    Other research: "Plasma Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Se levels and erythrocyte GPx, SOD and CAT activities were found to be significantly lower in patients with AD compared with controls. These results suggest that alterations in essential trace elements and their related enzymes may play a role in the [cause and development] of AD. Also, there is a defect in the antioxidant defense system, which may lead to oxidative damage in patients with AD. The changes in antioxidant enzyme activities may be secondary to the alterations in their cofactor concentrations." [37] I don't know exactly what this means.



    A selenium excess might be bad. Based on the research, selenium might be beneficial and it seems wise to supplement with selenium, being careful not to get an excess of selenium.



    8. Copper

    One study suggests that Cu, Fe and Zn play a role in Alzheimer's, but notes that "The exact role of the alterations in brain Cu, Fe, and Zn found in this study in the pathogenesis of AD is not known. It is possible that these imbalances are important in increasing oxidative stress and enhancing neurodegeneration in AD." [38]



    Another says: "As recently summarized in reviews by Maynard et al. (2005) and Doraiswamy and Finefrock (2004), the role that Cu plays in the progression of AD is far from clear, but evidence is accumulating that Cu deficiency, rather than Cu toxicity, may be of greater concern. [...] future studies in this area are urgently needed. The concept that the use of nutritional supplements, including Cu, or specific chelation therapy, may reduce the progression and severity of these crippling neurological disorders is truly an exciting frontier of research." [39] Thus, it is not clear what effect Cu has.



    Based on the research above, it seems best not to supplement with copper as its exact effect is unknown and both too low as too high levels could be detrimental.



    9. Folinic Acid with B12

    Research has established that both folate and B12 play a role in Alzheimer's contraction: "This study suggests that vitamin B12 and folate may be involved in the development of AD. [...] No interaction was found between the two vitamins. Monitoring serum B12 and folate concentration in the elderly may be relevant for prevention of AD." [40]



    Another study finds a relationship between B12 and severity of Alzheimer's: "These findings suggest the possibility of a specific relationship between B12 levels and severity of cognitive impairment in patients with AD." [41]



    Another study suggests an effect on homocysteine levels (which have been linked to Alzheimer's) but does not find an effect on cognition, however they use folic acid, over-the-counter multivitamins and another simultaneous treatment: "[...] a multivitamin supplement containing vitamins B(6) and B(12) and folic acid for 26 weeks decreased homocysteine concentrations. No statistically significant beneficial effects on cognition or [activities of daily living] function were found between multivitamin and placebo at 26 weeks." [42]



    A large, long-term study suggests that B12 contributes to contracting Alzheimer's and the progression of the disease: "Low blood levels of folate and vitamin B12, and elevated tHcy levels were associated with AD. The stability of tHcy levels over time and lack of relationship with duration of symptoms argue against these findings being a consequence of disease and warrant further studies to assess the clinical relevance of these associations for AD." [43]



    One study sees a decrease in homocysteine levels, but does not find any difference in cognitive test performance: "The intervention was successful in reducing homocysteine levels but, in the study population as a whole, there was no evidence of benefit on any outcome measure. The general recommendation for B vitamin supplementation cannot be supported in patients with mild to moderate AD in the absence of B vitamin deficiency, at least in environments with folate enrichment of grains such as in the United States." [44] The study suggests a small correlation of supplementation with depression, although this is not really significant. The B12 dose is quite low, and they also supplement with B6 and they get it wrong by supplementing with folic acid: "The active study medication consisted of 5 mg/d of folic acid, 1 mg/d of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and 25 mg/d of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride)." [44] The folic acid dose is so much higher than the B12 dose that I start thinking about Dave Asprey's claim: " [...] high amounts of folate without adequate B12 can cause neurological conditions." [10]



    A large-scale placebo-controlled study finds more evidence: "The mean rate of brain atrophy per year was 0.76% [...] in the active treatment group and 1.08% [...] in the placebo group [...] The treatment response was related to baseline homocysteine levels: the rate of atrophy in participants with homocysteine >13 µmol/L was 53% lower in the active treatment group (P = 0.001). A greater rate of atrophy was associated with a lower final cognitive test scores." [50] Thus, this study finds a clear link between B12, brain shrinking and cognitive test scores. They used "folic acid (0.8 mg/d), vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/d) and vitamin B6 (20 mg/d)". [50]



    The last study provides pretty conclusive evidence on the benefit of (reasonable levels of) B12, folinic acid and possibly B6. These results and the reduction in homocysteine levels of all studies warrant supplementation with B12 and folinic acid.



    10. Creatine

    It has been shown that creatine improves brain performance in healthy vegetarians: "Long-term supplementation with creatine has yet to be declared truly safe, with reported effects on glucose homeostasis [...] and other side effects [...] This trial of creatine supplementation showed beneficial effects of creatine on mental performance. These effects may add to the physical enhancement gained by athletes supplementing creatine levels and may be of use to those requiring boosted mental performance in the short term. [...] These findings underline a dynamic and significant role of brain energy capacity in influencing brain performance." [45]



    Another study finds in postmortem examination that the level of creatine kinase is significantly lower in Alzheimer's patients: "Examining the level of cytosolic BB creatine kinase in postmortem AD and schizophrenic's brain structures showed a significant decrease in BB creatine kinase as compared with the similar control brain structures. There was the maximum decline in AD cases. It was considerable as compared with both the control and schizophrenic groups (p < 0.01)." [46] Creatine kinase is an enzyme in the cells that catalyses the conversion of creatine. It is a metabolic process, further suggesting that Alzheimer's is a metabolic disease. It seems logical that creatine supplementation will allow higher levels of creatine to be converted, but I don't fully understand this process.



    One study examines the role of creatine in the central nervous systems and suggests it might be beneficial for Parkinson's disease: "[...] potential benefits of a Cr supplementation can be expected for human patients with neurological disorders. With the limited research at present available, chronic Cr administration seems to be safe." [47] It lists a study that deems creatine supplementation in healthy adults safe.



    A rat study sees great decrease in homocysteine level: "[...] rats maintained on creatine-supplemented diets exhibited a significantly lower (~25%) plasma homocysteine level" [48] Homocysteine has been linked to Alzheimer's, thus possibly having a positive effect.



    But there is a study that is even much more valuable. It says this: "Thus, it is obvious that Cr as a simple nutritional supplement shows a great potential for neuroprotective effects in various neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases. [...] In two studies, Cr supplementation has been shown to improve mental concentration [...], as well as memory and learning [...] in healthy human subjects. It is possible that this will also be true for early stage AD patients. [...] Given the evidence for metabolic dysfunction in AD, we hypothesize that Cr supplementation at an early time point of the disease might be useful in compensating for the disturbed energy metabolism in subjects with AD [...] Although Cr cannot increase energy charge if CK is damaged, for example, by oxidative damage (see below), very early in the course of AD, CK is still functioning to some extent, so it is reasonable to assume that Cr may be of benefit in those early phases. [...]

    there is a valid concern that supplementation with extra Cr might exacerbate rather than ameliorate [the deposition of microcrystalline Cr deposits]. However, as reasoned above, Cr, if given at an early time point of disease, may prevent or delay the formation of Cr deposits that are a consequence of cellular pathology. In any case, Cr supplementation should be tested first [...] If successful, this cheap and safe intervention, involving as a nutritional supplement, may extend a huge socioeconomic benefit by improving the quality of life of AD patients and lowering exploding health care costs." [49]

    This summary hypothesizes that Creatine supplementation might be useful in compensating for the disturbed energy metabolism in subjects with Alzheimer's, but only in the beginning stages of Alzheimer's. It does propose a possible problem: Creatine deposits in Alzheimer patient's brains, and suggests it be tested first.



    Creatine has not been proven to be beneficial to Alzheimer's patients. But based on the above research, it seems wise to try supplementation with creatine for a limited period. If it does not work, it should be abandoned. Creatine has been proven to be safe in healthy adults, but it is not known how it reacts with the microcrystalline Cr deposits in the brain found in Alzheimer's patients.



    11. MCT oil

    This is where it gets really interesting. Here, a lot of research is being done and there are even more testimonials and case studies heralding coconut oil (which consists of 60% MCT) as the new cure for Alzheimer's. Diets lower in carbohydrates (Paleolithic diets) also seem to work, maybe because the primary cause of Alzheimer's is the high intake of carbohydrates. Quite feasible, as Alzheimer's already has been called 'diabetes type III', referring to the very probable idea that Alzheimer's is primarily a metabolic disease. Anyway, on to the research.



    A study lists beneficial results in cognition in subjects with a specific Apoliprotein-4 gene, but improvement on paragraph recall with all subjects: "Glucose is the brain’s principal energy substrate. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there appears to be a pathological decrease in the brain’s ability to use glucose. Neurobiological evidence suggests that ketone bodies are an effective alternative energy substrate for the brain. Elevation of plasma ketone body levels through an oral dose of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) may improve cognitive functioning in older adults with memory disorders. [...] Higher ketone values were associated with greater improvement in paragraph recall with MCT treatment relative to placebo across all subjects" [51]



    One great article explains the workings of MCT: "An early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is region-specific declines in brain glucose metabolism. Unlike other tissues in the body, the brain does not efficiently metabolize fats; hence the adult human brain relies almost exclusively on glucose as an energy substrate. Therefore, inhibition of glucose metabolism can have profound effects on brain function. The hypometabolism seen in AD has recently attracted attention as a possible target for intervention in the disease process. One promising approach is to supplement the normal glucose supply of the brain with ketone bodies (KB), which include acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. KB are normally produced from fat stores when glucose supplies are limited, such as during prolonged fasting. KB have been induced both by direct infusion and by the administration of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-protein, ketogenic diets. Both approaches have demonstrated efficacy in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders and in human clinical trials, including AD trials. Much of the benefit of KB can be attributed to their ability to increase mitochondrial efficiency and supplement the brain's normal reliance on glucose. Research into the therapeutic potential of KB and ketosis represents a promising new area of AD research." [52]

    Taking MCT led to a rapid cognitive improvement. The study states that even low levels of ketosis are beneficial: "This suggests that easily achievable levels of ketosis may be beneficial to the AD patient in the absence of dietary changes." [52]



    Another study on the new drug AC-1202 (which probably consists of MCT's) states: "AC-1202 rapidly elevated serum ketone bodies in AD patients and resulted in significant differences in ADAS-Cog scores compared to the Placebo. Effects were most notable in APOE4(-) subjects who were dosage compliant." [53]



    The health risks of MCT oil have not been researched well as of yet, but it is feasible that MCT oil poses very little risk. From the above studies, it can be concluded that it is a very good idea to supplement with MCT oil.



    Previous Alzheimer's biohacking

    Dr. Mary Newport also thinks supplementing Alzheimer's patients with coconut or MCT oil is a good idea. She has a remarkable story to tell, of the improvement of her husband's cognitive performance after stable decline for months [54]. He also receives some other supplements [55], including 5ml of cod liver oil and 10ml of fish oil.

    Unfortunately, Dr. Newport does not seem to be familiar with the Paleo diet, as Steve and her still eat grains [55].

    She is quite vague about the recommended amount of coconut and MCT oil, measuring in teaspoons rather than metric units like milliliters [55] [56]. Steve gets 3 teaspoons of MCT and coconut oil mixed half-half with every meal, so three times a day [55]. Assuming that she assumes a teaspoon is 15ml, that is about 70ml of MCT oil and 70ml of coconut oil daily. Elsewhere, she says that the goal for most people would be to increase gradually to 4-6 tablespoons a day of MCT or coconut oil (MCT oil makes up about 60% of coconut oil), which means 60-90ml [56].



    Other biohacking

    It seems very logical that N-back training might be beneficial for memory performance in Alzheimer's patients. I don't want this to interfere with the test scores while on the supplements however, so this is an option for after the initial supplementation period and rest period.



    One study (http://pubs.acs.org/....1021/jf049243r) suggests quercetin: "These results suggest that quercetin, in addition to many other biological benefits, contributes significantly to the protective effects of neuronal cells from oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity, such as Alzheimer disease."



    Another option is going fully Paleo or even Bulletproof as the high carbohydrate intake in a regular Western diet may be a main cause of Alzheimer's, but again, I don't want this to interfere with the test scores while on the supplements. This is an option for after the initial supplementation period and rest period.



    There's some research linking Aluminum to Alzheimer's. Aluminum detoxification might be beneficial.



    There are some testimonials about a certain Dr. Gerson and his cancer treatment working for Alzheimer's as well. This website (http://www.think-abo...ers_disease.htm) has a subjective discussion of those methods, including an idea of how to destroy the plaques that form in the brain during Alzheimer's. It seems not very viable and they seem to get many things wrong (vegetarian diet for example), but there might be some knowledge to be gained from the present-day practitioners of this method at the Gerson institute (http://gerson.org).



    Carefulness with feedback-loops

    One thing I was not aware of is the feedback loops in the body for endogenous-produced vitamins. One critical, smart individual points to research that supplementation with vitamin D might actually be counterproductive. It may help in the short term, but after the body's feedback loops downregulate the receptors for vitamin D, it might be detrimental [57]. This is something to consider.



    Obviously, the nutrients that only can be had from food (magnesium etc.) should be supplemented. But it is not clear whether stuff like vitamin D should be supplemented. There needs to be done some more research here, I don't have time for this right now.



    Study design

    Alzheimer's disease might be a downwards spiral. Other than theoretical hypotheses, this is suggested by many studies noting that the positive effects of specific supplementation were strongest in subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), not subjects with full-blown Alzheimer's. My family member's Alzheimer's has not progressed so far as to make day-to-day functioning difficult, but she has lost her job.



    If any of the researched supplements work, it is best to supplement with them as soon as possible, especially because they seem to have little risk. At the same time, cognitive performance must be tested, and the results must be corrected for better performance caused by test repetition.



    That is why I suggest the following approach:

    1. In the first week, she will receive no supplements but will do all the tests at least once, preferably more often.

    2. In the month following that, all supplements thought to be beneficial will be administered, and all tests will be made on at least a weekly basis.

    After this month, results will be evaluated.

    3. If the cognitive performance became significantly worse, the test will be stopped.

    3. If the cognitive performance increases, a two-week period will follow with no supplementation but with weekly tests. This will enable us to see if the improvement on test scores was because of repetition of the tests, or because of supplementation.

    4. If the test scores during this two-week period decrease significantly, supplementation will start again and decisions will be made on which supplements to leave out, to try and identify the beneficial supplements.

    4. If scores do not decrease significantly in the two-week period of no supplementation, another two-week period of no supplementation will follow and then conclusions on the influence of test repetition on test performance will be drawn. Decisions of continuing the trial or not will be made.



    The above will be the approach used during the n=1 trial.



    Supplement doses

    1. Vitamin D

    I see no reason to divert from the standard ~5000IU (those are the capsules I have) dose. Thus, the dose will be 5000IU/day.

    2. Magnesium

    I see no reason to divert from Dave's recommendations of about 600-800mg/day. Daily intake will be about 670mg, taking 4 caps of 167mg.

    3. Vitamin C

    Dr. Newport notes that Steve gets 2000mg of vitamin C per day. Dave recommends 1-2g. It seems logical to stick with 2g/day.

    4. Iodine

    I see no reason to divert from Dave's recommended amount of 1mg/day.

    5. Krill Oil

    Once again, I see no reason to divert from Dave's recommended amount of 1g/day.

    6. Vitamin A

    And again. 10,000IU/day it is.

    7. Selenium

    Again. 200mcg/day.

    8. Folinic Acid with B12

    Again I'm inclined to follow Dave's recommendations: 5mg of methylcobalamin and 800mcg of folate per day.

    9. Creatine

    I'm not sure of the dose here. 5g/day is a good starting point, I think.

    10. MCT oil

    Dr. Newport thinks that higher levels of coconut and MCT oil are beneficial. It seems logical to start with 30ml of MCT oil (which makes my 1L supply of MCT oil last one month).



    Testing memory performance

    Some cognitive performance tests mentioned often are: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, http://www.geriater-...be/pdf/MMSE.pdf, in Dutch) and ADAS-cog (http://www.huisarts....ie.ADAS-Cog.pdf, in Dutch). The disadvantage of these is that they have to be conducted in person.



    Other research uses tests like backward digit span and Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices [45]. An online version of the latter can be found at (http://www.iqtest.dk).



    Cogtest.com seems to have some interesting tests. I have emailed them requesting access to their tests.



    Here's a list with some more cognitive tests:

    N-back testing/training software: http://brainworkshop.sourceforge.net

    Face recognition: http://www.bbc.co.uk...body/sleep/tmt/

    Many different tests: http://cognitivefun.net/

    Very good IQ test: http://www.iq-test.com/





    To get a general idea of cognitive performance, I want to administer many different tests. Some longer tests can be taken monthly or biweekly, some smaller tests weekly or twice per week.



    A memory test that can be taken often is the digit span test (http://burotester.nl.../digitspan.html, Dutch). It will be taken twice per week.

    Another memory test is a word test (http://www.mtcompany...eugen_test.aspx, Dutch). It seems to randomize the words so that minimum learning takes place. It will be taken twice per week.



    Another memory test is the BBC face recognition test (http://www.bbc.co.uk...body/sleep/tmt/). Some learning might take place, I don't know if the faces are randomized. It will be taken biweekly.



    A good IQ test is Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (http://www.iqtest.dk). Some learninig might take place, therefore it will be taken monthly.



    Corsi-block tapping seems like a good test as well (http://memory.uva.nl...si_geheugentest, Dutch), this test wil be taken monthly (as you have to make a new account for each time you take it). The visual memory test (http://memory.uva.nl...le_geheugentest, Dutch) takes two hours and will be taken monthly as well.



    The MMSE and ADAS-cog will be taken by my uncle, biweekly.



    The Verbal memory, CPT-AX, Symbol Digit, Digit Span and Verbal Memory delay tests from cogtest.com will be done weekly (registration is free).









    [1] The progression of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias http://www.alzheimer...?documentID=133

    [2] What is fronto-temporal dementia (including Pick's disease)? http://www.alzheimer...?documentID=167

    [3] Pick's disease http://www.ncbi.nlm....lth/PMH0001752/

    [4] Borderline personality disorder (BPO) http://www.ncbi.nlm....lth/PMH0001931/

    [5] Alzheimer's: Diet 'can stop brain shrinking' http://www.bbc.co.uk...health-16344228

    [6] Food Combination and Alzheimer Disease Risk: A Protective Diet http://archneur.jama...rticleid=800390

    [7] The Mind Thieves http://www.monbiot.c...e-mind-thieves/

    [8] Paleolithic Diet Clinical Trials [review] http://wholehealthso...cal-trials.html

    [9] Rhode Island Hospital Study Finds Link Between Brain Insulin Resistance and Neuronal Stress in Worsening Alzheimer’s Disease http://www.rhodeisla...ageID=WTN000249

    [10] Upgrade Your Energy Supply: Optimize Your Supplements http://www.bulletpro...ur-supplements/



    [11] Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of incident Alzheimer disease http://psycnet.apa.o.../1998-11183-001



    [12] Higher Serum Vitamin D3 Levels Are Associated with Better Cognitive Test Performance in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease http://content.karge...roduktNr=224226

    [13] Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Low Mood and Worse Cognitive Performance in Older Adults http://journals.lww....Low_Mood.7.aspx



    [14] Disturbances of magnesium concentrations in various brain areas in Alzheimer's disease. http://europepmc.org...IJDQjPpQOkSr.16

    [15] Plasma magnesium decrease and altered calcium/magnesium ratio in severe dementia of the Alzheimer type. http://psycnet.apa.o.../1995-37708-001

    [16] Magnesium supplementation in the treatment of dementia patients http://www.sciencedi...306987706003173

    [17] Dementias: the role of magnesium deficiency and an hypothesis concerning the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease http://www.sciencedi...30698779090095V



    [18] Cohort Study of Vitamin C Intake and Cognitive Impairment http://aje.oxfordjou.../148/1/45.short

    [19] Plasma antioxidants are similarly depleted in mild cognitive impairment and in Alzheimer's disease. http://psycnet.apa.o.../2003-09501-003

    [20] Low plasma vitamin C in Alzheimer patients despite an adequate diet http://onlinelibrary...CO;2-T/abstract

    [21] Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease in Community-Dwelling Elders Taking Vitamin C and/or Vitamin E http://www.theannals...9/12/2009.short

    [22] Vitamin C and Vitamin E for Alzheimer's Disease http://www.theannals...9/12/2073.short

    [23] Dietary Intake of Antioxidants and Risk of Alzheimer Disease http://jama.jamanetw...rticleid=195058



    [24] Disease family trees: The possible roles of iodine in [...] Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases [...] http://www.sciencedi...306987787900727

    [25] Iodine-deficiency disorders. http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/18676011



    [26] Ethyl-EPA in Alzheimer's disease—a pilot study http://www.sciencedi...952327804001309

    [27] ω-3 Fatty Acid Treatment in 174 Patients With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease: OmegAD Study http://archneur.jama...rticleid=792554

    [28] Analysis of dietary factors in Alzheimer's disease: clinical use of nutritional intervention for prevention and treatment of dementia http://europepmc.org...ct/MED/11201186

    [29] Consumption of Fish and n-3 Fatty Acids and Risk of Incident Alzheimer Disease http://archneur.jama...rticleid=784412

    [30] The effects of omega-3 fatty acids monotherapy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study http://europepmc.org...ct/MED/18573585

    [31] Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects http://www.neurology.../71/6/430.short

    [32] The importance of fish and docosahexaenoic acid in Alzheimer disease http://ajcn.nutritio.../85/4/929.short

    [33] Fish Oil Supplementation of Control and (n-3) Fatty Acid-Deficient Male Rats [...] http://jn.nutrition....38/6/1165.short



    [34] -



    [35] The importance of selenium to human health http://dx.doi.org/10...6736(00)02490-9

    [36] Nutritional status of selenium in Alzheimer’s disease patients http://journals.camb...a840b894cced959

    [37] Alterations of plasma magnesium, copper, zinc, iron and selenium concentrations and some related erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with Alzheimer’s disease http://dx.doi.org/10...emb.2010.02.002



    [38] Copper, iron, and zinc imbalances in severely degenerated brain regions in Alzheimer's disease: possible relation to oxidative stress http://dx.doi.org/10...510X(96)00203-1

    [39] Copper, oxidative stress, and human health http://dx.doi.org/10...mam.2005.07.015



    [40] Vitamin B12 and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer’s disease http://www.neurology.../9/1188.1.short

    [41] Folate, vitamin B12 and cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease http://dx.doi.org/10....1992.tb03270.x

    [42] Efficacy of multivitamin supplementation containing vitamins B6 and B12 and folic acid as adjunctive treatment [...] http://europepmc.org...ct/MED/18042476

    [43] Folate, Vitamin B12, and Serum Total Homocysteine Levels in Confirmed Alzheimer Disease http://archneur.jama...rticleid=774437

    [44] High-Dose B Vitamin Supplementation and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer Disease http://jama.jamanetw...ticleid=1028650



    [45] Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/14561278

    [46] Brain isoforms of creatine kinase in health and mental diseases: Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia http://europepmc.org...ct/MED/10078058

    [47] Functions and effects of creatine in the central nervous system http://dx.doi.org/10...ull.2008.02.035

    [48] Methylation demand and homocysteine metabolism: effects of dietary provision of creatine and guanidinoacetate. http://www.ncbi.nlm....pubmed/11595668

    [49] The Creatine Kinase/Creatine Connection to Alzheimer's Disease: CK Inactivation, APP-CK Complexes and Focal Creatine Deposits http://www.hindawi.c...006/035936/abs/



    [50] Homocysteine-Lowering by B Vitamins Slows the Rate of Accelerated Brain Atrophy in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial http://www.plosone.o...al.pone.0012244



    [51] Effects of β-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults http://dx.doi.org/10...4580(03)00087-3

    [52] Ketone Bodies as a Therapeutic for Alzheimer's Disease http://dx.doi.org/10...urt.2008.05.004

    [53] Study of the ketogenic agent AC-1202 in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial http://www.biomedcen...3-7075-6-31.pdf



    [54] What if there was a cure for Alzheimer's disease and no one knew? http://www.coconutke.../whatifcure.pdf

    [55] Steve Newport - Coconut oil case study, update - february 2011 http://www.coconutke...EVE_NEWPORT.doc

    [56] Coconut oil dietary guidelines and suggestions http://www.coconutke...tguidelines.doc



    [57] Why I don't take vitamin D supplements http://gettingstrong...ents/#more-3997
  • GhastlyPrezGhastlyPrez Ghastly Prezence

    This is very interesting! Thanks for the share, and again for going so indepth about what you were doing.


     


    Alzheimer's is a huge concern, family members of mine have suffered through it and I've taken a proactive stance towards preventing/inhibiting Alzheimer's in regards to myself.


     


    I've been using:


     


    Piracetam 3,200mg daily


    Aniracetam 2,250mg daily


    Pramiracetam 600mg daily


    L-Theanine 400mg daily


    Alpha-GPC 300mg daily


     


    And it has certainly been helping improve my memory recall, as well as helping me with my social anxiety. Several of the drugs I am taking have been researched into regarding Alzheimer's and have been shown to be effective means of treating it.


  • Hello Murdock,




    Indeed very interesting and very good you are trying to help out your uncle. I would say the way you set up your research/examination is allright. Any updates so far?


    Keep up the good work,


     


    Chet


  • Another solid bookmarked page I have re-read 20 times, and it still holds strong.  Glad you are using coconut oil.  â€œCoconut oil,” he continued. “It’s amazingly beneficial for brain function. It flows right into mitochondria, turning on the fat-burning systems, the brain gets sharper and sharper, it reverse Alzheimer’s disease. I buy it in 50 pound containers and use it in cooking, baking, salad dressing, chocolate…”


     


    Full article...still love it!


     


    http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/pellissier20110915


    Seeing through the chaotic.
  • selegiline/deprenyl? mct oil


  • RodRod The Rodfather

    I would also look into 


     



    Podcast #27: Minding My Mitochondria with Dr. Terry Wahls, MD

     


     


    She reverse her MS


    Everything I learned about "biohacking" has been baby steps to "circadian biology", that's where the real biohacking comes in. You can buy a bunch of cool shit to "hack" but if you don't have context, you're not winning. Paleo is just a brand now and too many have opinions, it's on you to read and reread the material to not only find truth but to connect the dots. Much love to everyone who has helped me on my journey for restoring my health, please keep in touch. Feel free to message me with health questions [email protected] 

  • edited May 2013

    So, any updates on your aunt Murdock? 


  • old thread, but I feel it has some useful info. I wonder if anyone has tried intermittent fasting according to the bp protocol in order to make things work. Here is some info I have found that could be useful to others:


     



    this guy was a speaker at asprey's podcast


     


    http://www.alzconnected.org/discussion.aspx?g=posts&t=2147505149&boardid=77


    thread i started to make the best out of alzheimers


  • DManDMan Master of Arts ✭✭✭

    I think not just MCT but some other fatty acid compounds in coconut help!


    And of course ketosis in general is proven to be helpful.


     


    Did you take a look at curcumin, nicotin and ECGC? They all seem to be good against Alzheimers/Dementia...


     


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotine#Medical_uses


     


    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21694462


     


    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25179227


    May you be well, may you be happy, may you be healthy, may you be loved.

    How much to eat:
    advanced | How to train: bulletproof training | HRV: HRV FOR TRAINING HRV BASICS What Affects HRV | Brain  & Memory dual n back training advanced training

     

     

  • Danno RedDanno Red Practical Man

    DMan: spot-fricking-on advice about ketones...get that brain off glucose! Taubes' findings strongly supports the notion that dimentia/Alzheimer's, in general, is type 3 diabetes.


  • Looked into Galantamine?




  • DMan: spot-fricking-on advice about ketones...get that brain off glucose! Taubes' findings strongly supports the notion that dimentia/Alzheimer's, in general, is type 3 diabetes.




    This guy is on track http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2367001/


     


    We have and exogenous ketone product which of course is neither marketed nor claimed to cure any diseases. We also have a new exogenous ketone product coming out in the next few weeks that is palatable and easily transportable. Hits the system quick and no conversion required as it is ketones. 

    E-PHARM and PROTOTYPE Nutrition Representative

     

  • http://impactaging.com/papers/v6/n9/full/100690.html


     


    This report describes a novel, comprehensive, and personalized therapeutic program that is based on the underlying pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and which involves multiple modalities designed to achieve metabolic enhancement for neurodegeneration (MEND). The first 10 patients who have utilized this program include patients with memory loss associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), or subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). Nine of the 10 displayed subjective or objective improvement in cognition beginning within 3-6 months, with the one failure being a patient with very late stage AD. Six of the patients had had to discontinue working or were struggling with their jobs at the time of presentation, and all were able to return to work or continue working with improved performance. Improvements have been sustained, and at this time the longest patient follow-up is two and one-half years from initial treatment, with sustained and marked improvement. These results suggest that a larger, more extensive trial of this therapeutic program is warranted. The results also suggest that, at least early in the course, cognitive decline may be driven in large part by metabolic processes. Furthermore, given the failure of monotherapeutics in AD to date, the results raise the possibility that such a therapeutic system may be useful as a platform on which drugs that would fail as monotherapeutics may succeed as key components of a therapeutic system.

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