Yes. Its a Binder and it binds everything.
One should wait about 2 hours, correct me if I am wrong.
I recall on a podcast the Dave said it only binds to positively charged particles, which is what toxins are.
Coder/Shaper who thinks this is his blog: alienvir.us
It varies, and you can compare the potential for impact and why you're taking it.
If I took an expensive prescription medication, I would try to have AT LEAST 2 hours between the medication and the charcoal. More time is better. Some people say at least 1 hour.
There are limited studies about how long the charcoal can be adsorbing or affecting your body's absorption of particles - one did measure the impact of tylenol absorption over time, activated carbon (aka charcoal) was still reducing the amount of tylenol at 2 hours, but it was reducing it by a smaller amount... so it depends on how quickly your body absorbed a medication or toxin, as well as the adsorption of the charcoal.
If I took magnesium (relatively cheap, I'm not deficient) and wanted to take some charcoal too... I might wait 30 minutes before/after. But not as a regular habit or part of my daily regimen.
If I took anything at any time, but then basically got food or toxic poisoning from something... I would take the charcoal IMMEDIATELY. Getting rid of a toxin trumps everything else. (If within 2 hours of a prescription medication, I'd contact my doctor or health care provider to see what the impact is, if it should count as missing a dose, I should make up the missed dose, etc.)
To your original question - I would not take the charcoal with the other stuff at bedtime. Either take it 2 hours before bed, or take the other stuff 2 hours before bed and then charcoal when you go to sleep.
Does upgraded charcoal have a negative effect on your gut biome? I feel like I have heard that somewhere.
Activated charcoal is generally safe for your gut micro biome, as far as everything I've read. It will adsorb anything that has a positive charge - typically toxins or medicines in the gut. It's possible it would latch onto positively charged bacteria, but less likely.
I'm sure you could cause some problems if you took too much charcoal daily (20+ grams), but in terms of non-food things that people ingest, I think activated charcoal is way over on the safe side.
I consider charcoal to be part of general hygiene for the gut - kind of like washing your hands, but with a substance that is safe for the intestines. Could you damage your hands with too much hand washing? Sure, but for practical purposes, it is generally safe.